Vaccine Preventable Diseases
Childhood Tuberculosis (TB)
TB is usually spread through breathing and that is how it enters the lungs. If left untreated, it can harm the lungs and brain.
Polio is a highly infectious viral disease that mainly affects young children. The virus is transmitted through contaminated water and food, and from person to person by infected saliva or faeces. The virus attacks the nervous system which can cause paralysis, mostly in the lower limbs and it is often permanent.
Rotavirus infection is common in young children and adults. Rotavirus is the number one cause of diarrhea and kills around 53,300 children in Pakistan each year.
Its symptoms appear after two days and last for a week. If left untreated, it can also result in death, especially in young infants.
Pneumonia is a lungs infection that spreads through breathing. It causes inflammation which results in stiffness of lungs and makes it difficult to breathe. If left untreated, it can also result in death, especially in young infants.
Pertussis (Whooping Cough)
Pertussis is an infectious disease that causes violent coughing spells with a whooping noise which makes it difficult to breathe. Pertussis is spread from one child to another through the nose or mouth by coughing, sneezing or touching infected surfaces. If left untreated it can harm the child’s internal organs.
Tetanus is caused by bacteria found in the soil and it enters the body through open wounds like cuts, burns and non-sterile surgery. If left untreated, it can result in death through paralysis of the throat and respiratory muscles.
Hepatitis B is a contagious liver disease that results from the Hepatitis B virus. It is spread through exchange of blood or other body fluids of an infected person and also transmitted from an infected mother to a child at birth. If left untreated, it can result in liver failure.
Meningitis is an inflammation of the inside layers of the brain. It can be bacterial, viral or fungal. Meningitis can be triggered by an autoimmune disease when the body attacks itself e.g. lupus. An adverse reaction to medicines may cause meningitis. The virus can be transmitted through the nose, skull fractures or spinal fluid. If left untreated, it can result in death.
Diphtheria is a contagious bacterial infection that spreads from one person to another and attacks the respiratory system (nose, throat and tonsils). If left untreated, it can damage internal organs that may result in death.
Measles is a highly infectious disease that can easily be spread from person to person by sneezing, coughing or physical contact. Measles is a highly infectious disease that can easily be spread from person to person by sneezing, coughing or physical contact.
Typhoid fever is a life-threatening disease caused by a bacteria Salmonella Typhi . Salmonella Typhi only lives in humans. People with typhoid fever carry the bacteria in their bloodstream and intestinal tract. Severe cases may lead to serious complications or even death. Fatality rates in typhoid fever range from 1-4% in treated cases and 10-20% in untreated cases. The highest fatality rates are reported in children <4 years of age.
Rubella is an infection caused by a virus and is usually mild in children and adults. Congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) is a group of birth defects that occur when the rubella virus infects a fetus. A woman infected with the rubella virus early in pregnancy has a 90% chance of passing the virus on to her fetus and this can lead to death of the fetus or to CRS. The most common birth defect is deafness, but CRS can also cause defects in the eyes, heart and brain.